東京外大は解答例に加え, 採点基準や部分点に対する考え方まで細かく公開していますので, 大学Websiteは必ずチェックしましょう。本記事にも掲載しております。
日本史 or 世界史：100点
|1||長文||1. 説明(80字) 2. 説明(40字) 3. 説明(40字) 4. 説明(40字) 5. 説明(40字) 6. 説明(80字)||The Digital-Era Brain
|2||長文||空所補充[選択肢が一括で10語, 適切な形に変える。2020年の解答は-ingか-edかそのままか]||Scientists Find High Levels of Plastics in Arctic Snow
|3||長文||文挿入[選択肢は9つ。]||Barbie at 60: Instrument of female oppression or positive influence?||40|
|4||リス||長い対話を聞き, リード文の答えを3択から選ぶ。10問。【放送は1回】||Life in the UK
|5||リス||落とし物の実験に関する長いやりとりを聞き, リード文の答えを3択から選ぶ。6問。【放送は1回】||What dropping 17,000 Wallets Around The Globe Can Teach Us About Honesty
2. 講義の理解をもとにした自由英作文 (200words)
|Big C and Little c culture
共通テスト英語の第6問Aが560 words程度ですので, とにかく長い。語彙レベルも共通テスト英語とは比べ物にならないくらいです。足りない語彙を補うためのリーディングスキル, 特に, パラグラフリーディングの習得が不可欠だと言えます。これはロジック（論理）力に直結しますので, 内容把握がスムーズにできるようになります。リスニングにも自由英作文にも好影響を与えてくれます。
語数を見ても分かる通り, とにかく長い。4, 5については放送回数が1回で, さらに, リード文が与えられているわけなので, 設問・選択肢の先読みをしっかりとしておいてキーワードを決定し, 聞きながらその都度解いていく手法で攻めましょう。4はスピードがゆっくりめだし, 聞き取れないところがあっても文脈から推測ができるため確実に得点源としたい大問です。6についてはメモが全てです。かつては共通テスト英語リスニング第5問のワークシート問題ように与えられるスライドにブランクがあり, それを埋めていけば, 要約の足がかりとなる情報が整理できるようになっていました。今は与えられるスライドにはポイントのみ記載されている形【このスライドは最強のヒントなので重要視してください】です。ですから, 要点のメモをとる練習を日頃からしましょう。また, 内容を頭に残す練習もしてください。記憶に残す意識を高めてもらえればOKです。
・ 要約問題（日本語での要約）でパラグラフリーディング力UP, リスニングの要約訓練ができる
リスニングは, 過去問演習に加えて, 出典を普段の学習に活用するのがオススメです。毎日聞いてください。毎日新しいものを聞く必要はありません。同じ素材を反復と新しい素材をバランス良く進めてしてください。その際, メモをとる練習もできますし, スクリプトを理解した後に, 音読, 更にシャドーイングプラクティスまで可能ですので, 本番を想定してあらゆる方法でのプラクティスをしましょう。
1. Podcastenglish. com
第4問の出典です。このWebsiteの良い点は, 音声Downloadに加えて, ScriptとWorksheetさえも入手できる点です。受験生にとってリスニング学習で最もきついのはScriptなしの状態だと思います。そこに対応できます。Levelも3段階のため, 上級者のレベルにも対応できます。
Life in the UK（Level1~3のうち2）
第5問の出典です。このWebsiteの良い点は, 音声Downloadに加えて, Scriptも入手できる点です。さらに, このWebsiteの記事は多くの大学の長文読解の出典にもなっています。Fukuoka English Gymの記事でも何度も紹介させていただいているウェブサイトです。
What dropping 17,000 Wallets Around The Globe Can Teach Us About Honesty
|1||長文||1. 説明(80字) 2. 説明(40字) 3. 説明(40字) 4. 説明(40字) 5. 説明(40字) 6. 説明(80字)||30~35|
2. 講義の理解をもとにした自由英作文 (200words)
Part6の要約と自由英作文は時間との戦いですので, 普段から制限時間を意識してプラクティスをしましょう。40~45分くらいに負荷をかけた状態で200words要約と200words自由英作文をこなす練習がオススメです。まとめて時間が取れない場合は, 分散してもOKです。
RichardNot so long ago Jackie became a Portuguese citizen. So Jackie, what did you need to do for that?
Jackie: Lots of paperwork, that’s for sure. But you do need to um... live some... live in Portugal for six years, not have a criminal record and to pass a language test.
Richard: And you need to hang... hand over some cash as well. Jackie: Yeah, it was very expensive. At least 250 euros.
Richard: But for this week’s podcastsinenglish.com we’re looking at how foreigners can become permanent residents or citizens of the UK.
Jackie: Well, first of all you need to take, and pass of course, the Life in the UK Test. Now this is in English of course, so you do need to have the right level of English to do it. Um...
Richard: Yes. And it’s based on a book, isn’t it?
Jackie: Yeah, now what’s... it’s a handbook, Richard. What’s that called?
Richard: It’s called Life in the United Kingdom: A Guide for New Residents. And this is available online.
Jackie: Yeah. Well, actually you can practice online as well, Richard, can’t you? The test consists of 24 questions.
Richard: Multiple choice.
Jackie: Yeah, multiple choice. And you need to get at least 18 right to pass.
Richard: And you get 45 minutes.
Jackie: Yeah, 45 minutes, so what’s that? Just under two minutes for each question.
Richard: And every question is based on the book.
Jackie: Yes. OK. Now [laughs] Richard and I have done this test a few times and am... well perhaps not amazingly but I failed it quite a few times and you Richard...?
Richard: I... I... did three tests, I passed two and failed one.
Jackie: Now if you... if you are doing this because you seriously want to become a resident of the UK, you can just retake the test, right, you can hand over another fifty pounds. Um... but it’s interesting because the handbook, Richard, there are five chapters, aren’t there?
Richard: Yes, um... “The values and principles of the UK”, “What is the UK?” One titled: “A long and illustrious history”, history questions um... “A modern, thriving society”, and the final one is about “The UK government, the law and your role” as a citizen.
Jackie: Now I think I’m right, Richard, it’s the third chapter, the history questions which let us down. I mean let’s give you some examples of the kind of questions they were asking from that chapter.
Richard: “What...” sorry, “When did the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms establish in Britain?” Jackie: I mean we’ve got no idea, really.
Richard: Well, they’re multiple choice... the... the multiple choices didn’t give you much chance either, they were very close together.
Jackie: Yes. But that’s the same with all of them. “When were the first coins minted?” Richard: And “The population of the British Empire”.
Jackie: I mean, you know, the... the thing is I think there can be useful questions, things that people should know about the UK: the law, how we behave, things like that.
Richard: And yes and rather... rather than useless questions which Brits don’t even know themselves.
Jackie: Well, we don’t know and as a result of those history ones, we failed the test to become a British citizen. Richard: So, Jackie, do you know of any other countries that have tests like this?
Jackie: I think they do something similar in Spain and France.
Richard: But luckily for you, not in Portugal.
Jackie: [laughs] No, I think I would have failed that one, certainly.
Life in the UK, podcastsinenglish.com
LULU GARCIA-NAVARRO, HOST: Picture this. You’re a receptionist at, say, a hotel. Someone walks in and says they found a lost wallet, but they’re in a hurry. They hand it to you. What would you do? Well, researchers have looked at that question using thousands of supposedly dropped wallets from all around the world. NPR’s Merrit Kennedy has more on what they found.
MERRIT KENNEDY, BYLINE: The experiment started small. A research assistant in Finland pretending to be a tourist turned in a few wallets containing different amounts of money. He’d walk up to the counter of a big public place, like a bank or a post office.
ALAIN COHN: Acting as a tourist, he mentioned that he found the wallet outside around the corner. And then he asked the employees to take care of it.
KENNEDY: Alain Cohn from the University of Michigan says surveys show most people think more money in the wallet would make people less likely to return it. He even thought so. But actually, what they were seeing was the exact opposite.
COHN: People were more likely to return a wallet when it contained a higher amount of money. At first, we almost couldn’t believe it and told him to triple the amount of money in the wallet. But yet again, we found the same puzzling finding.
KENNEDY: The researchers decided to do the experiment on a much larger scale. They dropped off more than 17,000 lost wallets in 40 countries. All of the wallets looked about the same — a small clear case with a few business cards, a grocery list and a key. Some had no money, and some had the local equivalent of about $13.
And around the world, they kept finding the same thing. In 38 out of 40 countries, people were more likely to return the wallets with money. And in three countries, they dropped wallets containing nearly a hundred bucks. Cohn says the results were even more dramatic.
COHN: The highest reporting rate was found in the condition where the wallet included $100.
KENNEDY: So what’s behind all this honesty? The researchers think there are two main explanations. First, just basic altruism.
COHN: Basically, if you don’t return the wallet, you feel bad because you harmed another person.
KENNEDY: There’s some evidence for that. They ran a test where just some wallets contained a key, only valuable to the person who lost it. Those wallets were about 10% more likely to be returned. Cohn says he also thinks the results have a lot to do with how people see themselves, and most people don’t want to see themselves as a thief.
COHN: The more money the wallet contains, the more people say that it would feel like stealing if they do not return the wallet.
KENNEDY: The rates that wallets were returned varied a lot by country, even though money in the wallet almost always increased the chances. The researchers think the country’s wealth is one factor, but a lot more research is needed to explain the differences.
Duke University economist Dan Ariely studies dishonesty. He says this shows material benefits are not necessarily people’s only motivation.
DAN ARIELY: We see that a lot of dishonesty is not about the cost-benefit analysis, not about what I stand to gain and what I stand to lose. But instead, it’s about what we can rationalize. To what extent can we rationalize this particular behavior?
KENNEDY: Cohn says their study, which appears in the journal Science, suggests people are too pessimistic about the moral character of others.
COHN: I think it’s a good reminder that other people might be more similar to you and not always assume the worst. KENNEDY: And sometimes, honesty does pay. After people reported a lost wallet, they got to keep the cash.
Merrit Kennedy, NPR News.
(c) 2019 National Public Radio, Inc. NPR news report titled What Dropping 17,000 Wallets Around The Globe Can Teach Us About Honesty was originally broadcast on NPRs Weekend Edition Sunday on June 20, 2019, and is used with the permission of NPR. Any unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited.
So, a lot of the literature talks about culture in terms of these two big, giant categories: “Big C” culture or high culture and “Little c” or low culture. Now, both are really interesting.
“Big C” culture is the stuff you grow up with. When you begin learning a foreign language, you quickly learn who are the best writers, who are the directors, who are the known figures, what are the known works in this one. Literature, film, music, all of those big names, things that will never go away from one’s culture. So, these are the Shakespeares. These are the Bachs. These are the Tchaikovskys of culture.
But then, we mustn’t forget “Little c” culture. This is the ephemera, the stuff that may be here just for today and then go away, and yet makes living today absolutely, positively possible. We can’t live without “Little c” culture. We can’t communicate without “Little c” culture.
Now, I remember an ESL lesson I did in Hungary that was all set up on questions of duality of this or this. Now, think about how much of our lives, the simple things we do, are based on a this or that question. And all you have to do is go to the supermarket. Paper or plastic? Cash or credit? You’re in a restaurant. Is that for here or to go? Think about this. I mean, you can, we can just do this for like 30 minutes. You just come out with about a thousand of these, huge numbers. It’s as though our lives are one big choice. Either here or there? Right, yes or no, right? And that’s, and yet all of those, think how encoded those are. If you’re in a supermarket, think about it, most European supermarkets, and someone says to you, paper or plastic. What paper? What plastic? Do you want me to buy a paper, a newspaper? Newspaper, yes, I’ll take two. No, not a newspaper. Plastic what? Toys, I’ll take several. Right, what, what are you talking about? Oh, shopping bag. Well, Europeans tend to bring their own, actually: very green. We should do this. But in America these quick little, “Little c” discussions are part and parcel of the language. It’s not that a non-native speaker doesn’t know the word, paper or plastic, cash or credit. She knows those words. She doesn’t understand them in the context of cash or credit.
My favorite, really, you’d have to admit, is “Is that for here, or to go?” I always love that one. And we, we just say this. We just say this as though, is that for here or to go? Now, and with that speed, too. Right? So, imagine yourself as a poor learner of Swahili, and you’re posed the same kind of question, culturally embedded, completely unintelligible, even though those words, IS THAT FOR HERE OR TO GO, first year English, first year English, simple stuff, simple, simple stuff. But in the cultural context, it’s a bear. So, that’s our “Little c” culture. It really wasn’t until fairly recently, guys, that we started realizing the importance of “Little c” culture.
Thomas Jesús Garza. 2010. On "Big C" and "Little c" culture. In Foreign Language Teaching Methods. Carl Blyth, Editor. COERLL, The University of Texas at Austin. http://coerll.utexas.edu/methods.